Ultrasounds

Ultrasounds_01

The use of ultrasounds introduces energy in the system and can enhance extraction by several mechanisms:

–  Breaking the cellular walls due to cell cavitation.
– Creates larger surfaces
– Causes solution warming

The main variables to control the system are:
1. Frequency (ν)
2. Cycle number (-)
3. Output amplitude (%)
4. Treatment time (Tmax)

 

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